Realtime Comments

Now that we have statistics that keep themselves up to date, let's add the back-end for our comments. We want this to feel more like a live chat, so we'll make use Pakyow UI again.

Data Layer

First, we need a comment mutable to fetch and alter our comments state. Create a file named app/lib/mutables/comments_mutable.rb and add the following code:

Pakyow::App.mutable :comment do
  query :for_default_post do
    redis.lrange(:comments, 0, -1) { |content, id|
        id: id + 1,
        content: content

  action :create do |params|
    redis.lpush(:comments, params[:content])

The for_default_post query finds all comments and creates an array of hashes from the raw data. Under it, the create action creates a new comment in Redis.

View Logic

Next, we need to define the mutator required for view rendering. Create a app/lib/mutators/comments_mutator.rb file and add the following code:

Pakyow::App.mutators :comment do
  mutator :list do |view, data|

This is almost exactly like our stats mutator, except we're calling the apply view transformation method rather than calling bind. The apply method transforms the view to match the data being applied and then binds the values in.

When we apply an empty collection of comments, apply will simply render the default version of the scope. If the collection contains one or more comments, it will create a copy of the comment scope for each comment. The result is that the view will always contain the same number of elements as the collection being applied, while providing some convenience around handling empty collections.


Now that we have our mutable and mutator, it's time to wire it up. Open app/lib/routes.rb and add the following code at the end of the default route:

# render the comment list
  with: data(:comment).for_default_post

# setup the form for a new object

First we render our comment list with our comments data and then subscribe it to future state changes. Next we bind an empty object to the comment form, so that Pakyow will setup the form for creating a new comment. This might seem odd, but will make more sense in a moment.

Next, let's define the restful route for comment creation. Add the following code after the default route:

restful :comment, '/comments' do
  action :create do
    # create the comment

    # go back
    redirect :default

Following the REST convention, this route will be called when a POST request is sent to /comments. Now there's only one more step remaining. We need to tell Pakyow to tie the comment scope to the restful resource. Open app/lib/bindings.rb and replace the contents with the following code:

Pakyow::App.bindings do
  scope :comment do
    restful :comment

Now everything is hooked up. When binding an empty object to the comment form, Pakyow will set it up for creating a comment through our restful resource.

Avoiding the Form Submission Refresh

Open localhost:3000 in two browser sessions and you'll see that comments created in one window automatically show up in the other window. This is great, but it's still a bit clunky for the user creating the comment since the form submission causes a full page refresh.

Fortunately the Pakyow client library, Ring, gives us a way to avoid this. Open app/views/_comment-form.html and add the following data-ui attribute to the form node:

<form data-scope="comment" class="margin-t" data-ui="mutable">

This attaches a ui component named mutable to the form node. The mutable component ships with Ring, and interprets a user's interaction with the interface as a change in state.

Let's also load the component that's bundled with the project. Open app/views/_templates/default.html and add the following markup between the opening and closing <head> tags:

<script src="/scripts/ring/components/mutable.js"></script>

Now, when the form is submitted, mutable jumps in and hijacks the interaction, submitting the form over the open WebSocket rather than normal HTTP. Because Pakyow UI exposes our routes over the WebSocket, the restful create route is called, which creates our new comment. Once created, the new comment is pushed down to any connected client, including the client that created the comment.

Realtime Wrapup

We've successfully built a prototype, added a back-end to it, and made everything work in realtime. and we didn't move any code to the client or write any JavaScript to make it happen!

There are two fundamental Pakyow concepts at work here: the View Transformation Prototcol and Simple State Propagation. These concepts work together to provide auto-updating views in a new way.

Progressive Enhancement

The idea that content should always be accessible is expressed throughout the Pakyow design philosophy. In fact, if you completely disable JavaScript the app we just built will still continue to work! Views will no longer auto-update, but the content remains accessible and the UI continues to function.

For the first time, Pakyow makes it possible to build modern, realtime apps that degrade well when JavaScript fails to execute or is unavailable. You can be sure that your content is always accessible, both by bots and by users.